'A healthy growth mindset'? It's not about just being positive or negative. That's too superficial.

Just being positive or negative wouldn't explain the differences between the mindsets of top achievers. It wouldn't explain why some people struggle to recover from setbacks or why they avoid serious challenges because they fear failure.

Encouraging a growth mindset in others

Let's say you are a team leader, manager, teacher or parent. What do you do to develop a growth mindset in your employees or children?

The principle is simple: Praise and recognise useful behaviours, not personal traits. Think of behaviours as changeable and traits as fixed - including natural advantages you've had from birth.

So, praise effort, determination, resilience, strategies, honesty. Talk about behaviours in other people who model them. Assume that a setback is a setback, not a measure of your employee's or child's potential.

Don't mention intelligence, talent or natural ability. That encourages a fixed mindset - the belief that we are either intelligent or talented or not - and can't do anything about it.  You'll do more harm than good.